Bovine hydroxyapatite orbital implant: a preliminary report.


To determine the safety and efficacy of bovine hydroxyapatite as an orbital implant material.


Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing enucleation, evisceration, or secondary orbital implantation. A motility peg was placed in all consenting candidates. Patients were followed 1 week, 1 month, and several months after surgery for signs of inflammation, infection, extrusion, or other complication.


Twenty-seven patients received a bovine hydroxyapatite orbital implant. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in 3 patients (3 orbits) approximately 4 weeks after surgery and showed signs of peripheral fibrovascular ingrowth in all three cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained in 9 patients (9 orbits) 4 to 12 months after surgery and showed signs of incomplete fibrovascular ingrowth in 1 of 9 (11%) cases, subtotal fibrovascular ingrowth in 2 of 9 (22%) cases, and complete fibrovascular ingrowth in 6 of 9 (67%) of cases. Complications included postoperative chemosis in 3 cases (11%) and exposure requiring reoperation in 2 cases (7%). Motility peg placement was performed successfully in 5 patients (5 orbits).


Bovine hydroxyapatite appears to be a safe and effective orbital implant material. The material appears to be biocompatible and nonallergenic. Bovine hydroxyapatite allows for fibrovascular integration and motility peg placement.